• The Gaze, pp. 427-9
  • Laura Mulvey Vvisual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema"

    438    I. INTRODUCTION

    a) A Political Use of Psychoanalysis b) Destruction of Pleasure as a Radical Weapon


    440    II. PLEASURE IN LOOKING/ FASCINATION WITH THE HUMAN FORM

    a) Film satisfies this primal pleasure we all get from looking at other people.
    scopophilia - - the pleasure we get from looking, in seeing other people as objects. We get a sense of power from being able to do this.  With John Berger she believes the one who looks has the power.
    Voyeristic scopophilia --
    b) Narcissistic scopophilia is looking at other people as seeing them as surrogates for yourself.  We also identify with people in movies.   So there is a tension here between the sense of power we get from observing others as separate from ourselves and the pleasure we get in imagining that we are the people we are looking at.
    the mirror stage:
    c) tension between these impulses-- to see others as separate and to identify with them


    442  III. WOMAN AS IMAGE, MAN AS BEARER OF THE LOOK

    a) Split between male, active gaze which looks and female passivity which is looked upon. Women are always on display in film.  Seen as objects of sexual desire; this is trasnsformed into exhibitionism.  Visual presence of female tends to stop the stroy line to dwell on the image.
    diegesis -- "In a narrative film, the world of the film's story. The diegesis includes events that are presumed to have occurred and actions and spaces not shown onscreen. " source
    Buddy pictures
    Why are so many women in film showgirls, strippers, etc.
    b) Gender split carries over into narrative of film--men carry the story, make things happen, while woman remains icon.
    c1) Problems with woman as icon:
    444    c1a) voyeurism -- sadistic desire to punish woman for her lack
            c1b) fetishistic scopophilia -- builds up beauty of womanin order to compensate for anxiety
    C2) Examples: Sternberg's Dietrich films show festishism.  Hitchcock--


    447 SUMMARY
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    Thornham "Feminist Media and Film Theory"